Research grant of the National Science Centre, Kraków, Poland, No. N N109 051438


Sword manufacture technology in the present-day territory of Poland, the 5th-the end of the 15th c.

The present research project results from insufficient research on the technology of sword manufacture in Poland. Less than thirty artefacts from the period in question have been examined so far. It was originally planned to focus on ethnically Polish territories, which were part of the Polish state at a given point of time. It was later decided, however, to extend the incorporate data from other regions, making up the present-day territory of Poland. C. 350 swords are known from the period in question and it is planned to examine c. 100 examples. Furthermore, for the sake of comparison it was decided to examine selected available specimens from the Roman Period.

The following technological examinations are carried out:
- non-destructive methods: X-ray photos, flaw detector examinations
- destructive methods – sampling of blades, microscopic observations and scanning microscope examinations


The main aim of the project is to examine changes in the sword manufacture technology. The accomplishment of this aim may also enable the researchers to offer more precise data on the typochronology of swords, to propose ways of distinguishing between local manufacture and imports (as done for the Roman Period by M. Biborski, J. Stępiński, Z. Kędzierski and P. Kaczanowski) and to examine ways of spread of technological patterns and innovations.

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